The knee is made up of four bones. The femur or thighbone is the bone connecting the hip to the knee. The tibia or shinbone connects the knee to the ankle. The patella (kneecap) is the small bone in front of the knee and rides on the knee joint as the knee bends. The fibula is a shorter and thinner bone running parallel to the tibia on its outside. The joint acts like a hinge but with some rotation.
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Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Reconstruction
The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is the major stabilizing ligament of the knee. The ACL is located in the centre of the knee joint and runs from the femur (thigh bone) to the tibia (shin bone), through the centre of the knee. The ACL prevents the femur from sliding backwards on the tibia (or the tibia sliding forwards on the femur). Together with the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), ACL stabilizes the knee in a rotational fashion. Thus, if one of these ligaments is significantly damaged, the knee will be unstable when planting the foot of the injured extremity and pivoting, causing the knee to buckle and give way.
Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL)
Much less research has been done on the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) because it is injured far less often than the ACL.
The PCL prevents the femur from moving too far forward over the tibia. The PCL is the knee’s basic stabilizer and is almost twice as strong as the ACL. It provides a central axis about which the knee rotates.
Collateral Ligaments prevent hyperextension, adduction, and abduction
- Superficial MCL (Medial Collateral Ligament) connects the medial epicondyle of the femur to the medial condyle of the tibia and resists valgus force
- Deep MCL (Medial Collateral Ligament) connects the medial epicondyle of the femur with the medial meniscus
- LCL (Lateral Collateral Ligament) entirely separate from the articular capsule, connects the lateral epicondyle of the femur to the head of the fibula and resists varus force
Knee conditions normally involve disease or injury that can disturb the normal functioning of the joint. This can result in knee pain, weakness, instability, and limited movement. With longer life expectancy and greater activity levels, joint replacement is being performed in greater numbers on patients thanks to new advances in artificial joint technology provided by Dr. Jason Hurbanek at Hinsdale Orthopaedics.
Normally, all of the parts of the knee joint work together and the joint moves easily and without pain. However, disease or injury can disturb the normal functioning of a joint, which can result in knee pain, muscle weakness, and limited movement. And with longer life expectancies and greater activity levels, joint replacement is being performed in greater numbers on younger patients thanks to new advances in artificial joint technologies, which many are provided by Dr. Jason Hurbanek
Total knee replacement (TKR) is a surgical procedure in which the worn out or damaged surfaces of the knee joint are removed and replaced with new artificial parts.